Setup for remote synchronous instruction

My primary goal in delivering remote synchronous instruction (RSI) is to provide students with a learning environment that is at least equivalent to a face-to-face (F2F) one. It should be noted that I do not want to strive to make RSI to be the same as F2F. Each of them has their own strengths and weaknesses. Comparing them would be similar to comparing apples to oranges. To accomplish this primary goal, I want the followings:

  1. Communications between faculty and students are well maintained during lectures and office hours.
  2. Class materials are readily accessible.
  3. Students are able to do in-class hands-on activities.
  4. Assessments are streamlined with fast turn-around time.

I have finally arrived at a setting that satisfies the above requirements and is fairly well-received by the students. This setting includes the following components:

  • Communication: Zoom, Microsoft OneNote, D2L (LMS)
  • Publication: GitHub, Markdown, Jekyll
  • Computing environment: containers, XSEDE
  • Assessments: GitHub Classroom
Components supporting remote synchronous instruction


Across academic institutions, Zoom is the standard tool for remote communication. Zoom provides clear voice communication and reasonably good video streaming for remote synchronous lecturing. In one of my largest sessions, I was able to lecture to more than 40 students without any communication issue.

On the other hands, there comes a time when Zoom sharing/video streaming is not enough and the traditional white board is needed. I have seen other faculty’s Zoom setup with camera zooming into a physical white board to support their lecture. In my case, white board is extremely useful when it is needed, but I am not using it frequent enough to justify a large room setting. In the end, I turned to Microsoft OneNote as a solution. A notebook is created and shared. I used a notepad (iPad in my case but any notepad with stylus will work) to draw on the notepad like a whiteboard. The main computer with Zoom also view this notepad via a shared link. This link is also posted on D2L, our institutional LMS. Students can follow either the shared Zoom screen or the shared OneNote link.

Sharing of Microsoft OneNote notebook

With numerous different components, a repository of resource links is needed. I created a module inside D2L for this purpose. Contents of this module include passworded links to Zoom lectures, document containing information and link to Zoom office hours, and document containing links to Zoom recordings. Links for GitHub Classroom assignments are also provided via D2L’s assignment page. D2L’s Discussion Forum and Class Email capabilities are utilized to support out-of-class communication channels between myself and the students and also among the students.

Module containing information links


Publication in this case means the availability of all course materials. During my first few semesters, I have used the traditional PowerPoint slides. I found this approach to be cumbersome due to large amount of source codes accompanying my lectures. To overcome this issue, I turned to Markdown, Jekyll, and the template from Software Carpentry to create and maintain my course materials, including both website and lecture slides. Markdown allows me to simply write my slide, and the customized template driven by Jekyll allows me to quickly rebuild and deploy my course materials.

Main course website with the front page acts as the syllabus

Each lesson is contained in a page under the Episodes drop-down menu. Within each lesson, slides are created by modifying the CSS and JavaScript syntax of the original template.

A lecture (episode) with minimized slides

The clickable header of slides allows the slides to be expanded/minimized in order to resemble the organization of a slide deck. Nested slide structure can be created to form Challenge/Solution slides. Source codes are embedded and highlight through Gist.

Expanded slide with embedded C source code

An example course page for Computer System can be found here.

Computing environment

A remote learning environment often means students are cut off from on-campus resources. This includes technical support from university IT staff and, more importantly, student peers. Given that individual students will have their own computing devices with widely varied hardware and software configurations, I consider it very important to strive for a common computing platform for learning.

For Fall 2020, my courses included Computer Systems, Operating Systems, and Distributed and Parallel Computing. All three courses are Unix-based and use the C programming language. Therefore, all three courses will have their own learning platform. For Computer Systems, students access a remote Linux server hosted within the department. For Operating Systems, due to the needs to have administrative access, students setup VirtualBox and build their own virtual Linux machine. For Parallel and Distributed Computing, students utilize the Bridge Supercomputer available via XSEDE. These common platforms allow lecture materials, source codes, and technical troubleshooting to be streamlined.

Two issues that came up was the conflict between VirtualBox and Windows and Mac updates on some students’ laptop and the downtime of the departmental server. Starting Spring 2021, I am moving toward using container running on students’ computers. This is possible due to Windows’ integration of Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL2), RedHat’s Podman container engine, and Docker Desktop for Mac. The reason I don’t use Docker Desktop for Windows is due to students often run into trouble trying to activate/deactivate the Windows Hypervisor and enable virtualization in BIOS.


The evaluation process of programming assignments in my courses are completely automated. This allows for instantaneous feedback upon submission in a manner similar to industry’ CI/CD pipeline. Previously, we used Submitty as our departmental autograder. However, we found the effort to setup and maintain Submitty and its corresponding gradeables still significant for our department. In summer 2020, I switched to GitHub Classroom.

My GitHub classroom

GitHub Classroom (GHC) provides the infrastructure to organize students within classes and sections, develop assignments and tests, and facilitate automated testing and feedback. GHC’s UI to create tests is fairly intuitive, and it was straight foward to transform existing assignments and gradeables from Submitty to GHC. GHC turns individual students’ assignments into their own private Git repository, and GitHub Actions (GHA), an workflow automation feature of GitHub, is used for testing purposes. GHA is a cloud resource. Any time a student commits and pushes to their repository, a virtual machine is launched, runs the test scripts, and provides feedback under the form of a pull request to the student’ repository.

Students’ commit counts and grades for one assignment

All faculty are qualified for a free GitHub classroom account, which enables a free 2000-minute of GHA run time per month. I have learned that this amount will run out very quickly near the due date of an assignment. Fortunately, GitHub also allows the addition of “self-hosted” runners, user-provided compute instances that can be configured to link to the GitHub classroom organization and carry out the autograding tasks. For two of my classes (four sections in total), this has to be done as my per-class GitHub Action minutes ran out the night before the assignments are due!!!

Runners ready to grade for one class

Conclusion and Lesson Learned

Overall, my RSI setup works well up to date. While there has been no formal students evaluation administered since we all went online, this setting has enabled a high level of students engagement (verbal/chat questions and discussions), and more importantly, there has been very few instances of downtime due to technology failures. The online format actually lends itself well to hands-on activities in computer science. For example, in F2F, hands-on errors are often addressed individually and possibly repeatedly (students having the same error sitting far away). In RSI, students are asked to share their hands-on errors and helping one means helping many others with the same issue.

Despite my best efforts to anticipate and provide documentation for errors, they still happen. In many cases, the issues are with the diversity in hardware and software configurations of students’ personal computers. This is something that we do not have control over, and we have to keep doing our best to prepare. In the end, remote computing resources continue to be the optimal solution for all scenario.



Associate Professor, West Chester University of Pennsylvania

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Linh Ngo

Associate Professor, West Chester University of Pennsylvania